Climate School Sources

Climate School Preambule

1. The great acceleration

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Pond 5
NASA / Earth Science Data and Information System Project/NASA GSFC
Mindoro © La Jolie Prod
Icono Sennedjem_and_Iineferti_in_the_Fields_of_Iaru Metropolitan Museum of Art_Wikimedia Commons
Icono Public Domain : Cave painting from the Tassili n'Ajjer mountains 
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548354 
Iconographie Ile de Pâques Public Domain : Dr. CHAUVET Easter Island and Its Mysteries 
Médiathèque de la Commission Européenne
Iconographie Encyclopedia Britannica – Public Domain Mercedes Benz Public Archives
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Mosley Street_ Co-Curate Open Acess Licences_ Public Domain Tupperware Commercial_ Archives.org_Public Domain

RESOURCES:
Jared Diamond: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, 2004, PenguinLaurent Testot: Cataclysmes: une histoire environnementale de l’humanité, 2017, Payot
https://theconversation.com/the-truth-about-easter-island-a-sustainable-society-has-been-falsely-blamed-for-its-own-demise-85563
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rethinking-easter-islands-historic-collapse/
https://www.unep.org/interactive/beat-plastic-pollution/ 

2. An exponential growth

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NASA_Climat Science - NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center 
Médiathèque de la Commission Européenne 
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-trajectory-of-the-Anthropocene%3A-The-Great-Steffen-Broadgate/7d0b048c73a8e797fcb0a866701d6da8ab2c5aad/figure/2  
http://ecotope.org/people/ellis/papers/ellis_2010.pdf

3. Balance/Imbalance

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NASA- Aral Sea & Kokaral_Earth Observatory Image Survey-Public Domain 
Iconographie «Karakalpak Aral sea’ History» Public Domain 
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
http://www.karakalpak.com/histsoviet.htm
https://eurasianet.org/central-asia-propaganda-show-spotlights-soviet-push-in-muslim-lands
https://storage.googleapis.com/earthengine-timelapse/2018/curated/mp4/src/aral-sea.mp4
 
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2019.00241/full 
https://nickyhewittiel2014.wordpress.com/the-aral-sea-pre-irrigation-2/
https://www.globalgayz.com/uzbekistan-moynak-town-and-aral-sea-photo-gallery/3533/   

The Epic Story of Earth in 20 min

1. The Solar System

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«Récit des découvertes de Claude Lorius - secret des glaciers» © Fondation Université
Grenoble Alpes_IRD 
NASA
ESA Agence Spatiale Européenne ou © European Space Agency 


RESOURCES:
Robert Hazen,The story of Earth : the first 4.5 billion years, from stardust to living planet. 2013, Penguin Books.
https://www.britannica.com/plant/plant/Evolution-and-paleobotany
http://icecores.org/
https://www.nsf.gov/
https://www.ice-memory.org/ 
https://i0.wp.com/www.compoundchem.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ice-Cores-and-Atmospheric-History.png?ssl=1

2. 0:00 -5:00 AM

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NASA
ESA Agence Spatiale Européenne/ © European Space Agency
«Birth of Planet Earth» Illinois Media Space, © 2018 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Kilauea Volcano Hazards Program U.S. Geological Survey © USGS Multimedia 

RESOURCES:
Robert Hazen,The story of Earth : the first 4.5 billion years, from stardust to living planet. 2013, Penguin Books.
https://www.britannica.com/science/archaea 
http://www.astronoo.com/fr/articles/histoire-terre.html  
https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2019/01/What_is_the_origin_of_the_Moon  

3. 5:00 AM-9:30 PM

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NASA
ESA Agence Spatiale Européenne ou © European Space Agency
«Birth of Planet Earth» Illinois Media Space, © 2018 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Dead Sea Archaea © Britannica - Z. Radovan, JerusalemMédiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne Pond 5
«Internet: la pollution cachée» de Coline Tison, Laurent Lichtenstein © CAMICAS PRODUCTIONS 2014 / La Jolie Prod «Out of the Ashes: Dawn of the Age of Mammals» © HHMI BioInteractive Video
Sahelanthropus-tchadensis_Smithsonian Museum of Natural History

RESOURCES:
Robert Hazen,The story of Earth : the first 4.5 billion years, from stardust to living planet. 2013, Penguin Books.
http://www.eartharchives.org/articles/the-secret-garden-of-ediacara-and-the-origin-of-complex-life/
https://www.science-et-vie.com/archives/cellules-eucaryotes-l-hypothese-que-personne-n-attendait-20922 
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/mass-extinctions/
https://news.mit.edu/2014/ancient-whodunit-may-be-solved-microbes-did-it 

4. 9:30 PM-23:59 PM

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Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
«Out of the Ashes: Dawn of the Age of Mammals» © HHMI BioInteractive Video
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Sahelanthropus-tchadensis_Smithsonian Museum of Natural History 

RESOURCES:
Robert Hazen,The story of Earth : the first 4.5 billion years, from stardust to living planet. 2013, Penguin Books.
https://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/sahelanthropus-tchadensis 
https://www.wikiwand.com/fr/Sahelanthropus_tchadensis
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/mass-extinctions/
https://news.mit.edu/2011/mass-extinction-1118
https://news.mit.edu/2014/volcanic-eruption-dinosaur-extinction-1211

The overexplotation of natural resources

1. Energy

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Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
NASA Public Domain
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
Géosciences – la dynamique du système Terre de Christian Robert et Romain Bousquet (Edition Belin)
Sciences de la Terre et de l’univers – André Brahic et al. (Edition Vuibert)
Hardin, Garrett. 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science
https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02288208/document 
Bill Gates, How to avoid a climate disaster: the solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Penguin , 2021 

2. Coal

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«Internet: la pollution cachée» de Coline Tison, Laurent Lichtenstein ©  CAMICAS PRODUCTIONS 2014
Siyavula Education
Science Museum Group
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
https://ourworldindata.org/fossil-fuels 
Bill Gates, How to avoid a climate disaster: the solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Penguin , 2021 

3. Oil

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Mercedes Benz Museum Press Office

RESOURCES:
https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/07/18/clean-energy-transition-will-increase-demand-for-minerals-says-new-world-bank-report 
https://ourworldindata.org/fossil-fuels 
Bill Gates, How to avoid a climate disaster: the solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Penguin , 2021 

4. Water supply

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NASA Public Domain
Gustave Boulanger, Jules-César arrivé au Rubicon, 1854, Musée Picardie
ESA – European Space Agency

RESOURCES:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/11054
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/3658  
https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/groundwater-use-united-states?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects 
https://catalogue.unccd.int/587_mind-your-step-report-76803.pdf

5. Water demand

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RESOURCES:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12950
http://eduterre.ens-lyon.fr/ressources/scenario1/planetebleue/savoir-plus1 
https://www.wired.com/story/the-ongoing-collapse-of-the-worlds-aquifers/ 
https://www.unwater.org/water-facts/scarcity/ 

6. Gold and Copper

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RESOURCES:
https://geologyacademyfree.wordpress.com/
https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/metal-production-long-term 
https://www.systext.org/node/968
https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20161017-your-old-phone-is-full-of-precious-metals
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_s1ZP-jG5D8&ab_channel=TEDxTalks 

7. Rare Earth and recycling

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Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
Periodic Table Ultimate © EuChems – European Chimical Society

RESOURCES:
https://www.statista.com/statistics/1187186/global-rare-earths-mine-production/
https://www.euchems.eu/euchems-periodic-table/
https://visual.ly/community/Infographics/science/how-long-will-it-last 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_s1ZP-jG5D8&ab_channel=TEDxTalks 
https://www.tobysmith.com/project/rare-earthenware-2/ 
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-019-0334-3 

8. Sand and Conclusion

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RESOURCES:
https://www.resourcepanel.org/global-resources-outlook-2019 
https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/28163/SandSust.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 
https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2017/3062/fs20173062.pdf 
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charles_Hall2/post/How_do_the_economists_define_self-interest_and_rationality/attachment/59d6212679197b807797f912/AS%3A295029219315729%401447351855954/download/Mohr+et+al%2C+2015_Projection+of+FFuels.pdf 
http://theoilage.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/article_33.pdf

The Great Climate System

1. Weather or Climate?

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NASA Public Domain
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UNFCCC Adaptation Committee -UN Stories
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne


RESOURCES:
Gilles Ramstein, Sylvestre Huet, le climat en 100 questions, Tallandier, 2020 
http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2016/02/Carbon_flux%20
https://www.ipcc.ch/ 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vP4QTyVQTUo
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

2. The Great Climate System

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NASA Public Domain
“Jean Zay, vers la convergence de deux mondes” © GENCI -CNRS – IDRIS 2020
“GENCI et le supercalculateur Jean Zay “©CNRS – GENCI - Hewlett Packard Enterprise 2019
“IDRIS : Jean Zay, supercalculateur convergé HPC / IA | Talents © Genci – Idris – CNRS 2020

RESOURCES:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4313 
https://climateinformation.org/data-variables/what-is-a-climate-model/ 
https://yaleclimateconnections.org/2017/10/how-well-have-climate-models-projected-global-warming/
https://www.jstor.org/stable/43735378?seq=1 
Met Office /// How does the climate system work
 
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

3. Ice cores and natural forcings

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NASA Public Domain
«Récit des découvertes de Claude Lorius - secret des glaciers» © Fondation Université Grenoble Alpes_IRD
ESA – European Space Agency
Inside The Giant American Freezer Filled With Polar Ice © Ars Technica's Scott Johnson – NSF-ICF - US National Ice Core Laboratory

RESOURCES:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13127
https://www.ipcc.ch/ 
https://fondation.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/menu-principal/nos-projets/preservation-des-patrimoines/ice-memory/ice-memory-604312.kjsp 
https://www.ice-memory.org/ 
https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4-wg1-chapter1.pdf 
https://theconversation.com/the-three-minute-story-of-800-000-years-of-climate-change-with-a-sting-in-the-tail-73368 
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4882
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide 
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf 
https://phys.org/news/2016-12-ice-ages-linked-earth-orbitbut.html
http://www.zo.utexas.edu/courses/THOC/Milankovitch_Cycles.html
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-long-time-scale-of-ice-age-cycles_fig1_323027516
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

4. The greenhouse effect: Earth’s blanket

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Tackling deforestation: Central Africa Forest Initiative ©  CAFI – One Planet Summit 2021
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UNFCCC Adaptation Committee -UN Stories
NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency

RESOURCES:
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/new-3d-view-of-methane-tracks-sources-and-movement-around-the-globe/
http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2016/02/Carbon_flux%20
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WxgAOKzOcBU&fbclid=IwAR3zTDO4n6LbefTAtH62tmS8rwLT7i3rW5q63NNhpJf3o91gji1SiOFnlmk
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Annual-average-global-surface-temperature-anomalies-Source-NOAA_fig3_254862051
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

5. A steep, sharp and rapid rise: The Keeling Curve

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NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory
How Scientists Measure Carbon Dioxide in the Air © Scripps Observatory CO2 Program
Tackling deforestation: Central Africa Forest Initiative ©  CAFI – One Planet Summit 2021
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UNFCCC Adaptation Committee -UN Stories
NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency
«Internet: la pollution cachée» de Coline Tison, Laurent Lichtenstein ©  CAMICAS PRODUCTIONS 2014

RESOURCES:
https://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/ 
https://www.exploratorium.edu/climate/atmosphere
https://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/history_legacy/keeling_curve_lessons.html
https://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/385/2013/03/800px_Large_mauna_loa.jpg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jOAlC2dVtA
https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/video 
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=12044
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/videos/a-breathing-planet-off-balance
https://scripps.ucsd.edu/programs/keelingcurve/wp-content/plugins/sio-bluemoon/graphs/mlo_full_record.png
http://ar5-syr.ipcc.ch/topic_observedchanges.php 
https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel: What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018
Bill Gates, How to avoid a climate disaster: the solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Penguin , 2021

6. Energy excess

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NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency

RESOURCES:
https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/climate 
https://www.noaa.gov/ 
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Annual-average-global-surface-temperature-anomalies-Source-NOAA_fig3_254862051
www.climateinteractive.org/the-climate-leader/causal-diagrams
www.climateinteractive.org/the-climate-leader/reinforcing-feedback
https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/sea-level/ 
https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/arctic-sea-ice/
https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/ice-sheets/
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel: What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018
Bill Gates, How to avoid a climate disaster: the solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Penguin , 2021 

7. The consequences today

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NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency
NOAA
Wetlands Watch

RESOURCES:
https://medialibrary.climatecentral.org/resources/the-season-of-extreme-heat
https://emanuel.mit.edu/ 
Emanuel, K.A.(2005) : "Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years"
Emanuel, K.A.(2007) : What We Know About Climate Change, The MIT Press & Boston Review
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/world-of-change 
https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/ 
https://archive.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/w
https://emanuel.mit.edu/papers-data-and-graphics-pertaining-tropical-cyclone-trends-and-variability
https://www.carbonbrief.org/mapped-how-climate-change-affects-extreme-weather-around-the-world
http://news.mit.edu/2017/texas-odds-harvey-scale-rainfall-increase-end-century-1113
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

8. Predicting the future

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ESA – European Space Agency
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU -UN Stories
Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL)

RESOURCES:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5f5dJyvezY 
https://climateprimer.mit.edu/img/global-temp-projections.jpg
http://cmc.ipsl.fr/online-resources/ 
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

9. Tipping points 

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ESA – European Space Agency
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU -UN Stories
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
Tackling deforestation: Central Africa Forest Initiative ©  CAFI – One Planet Summit 2021
WWF France  & International -TDR

RESOURCES:
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03595-0 
Dr. Kerry A. Emanuel | Climate Science and Climate Risk: A Primer: https://amsresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Climate-Science-and-Climate-Risk_Emanuel.pdf
Kerry Emmanuel; What we know about climate Change, MIT Press, 2018

The Collapse of Biodiversity

1. The marvel of biodiversity

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«Out of the Ashes: Dawn of the Age of Mammals» © HHMI - BioInteractive
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
The Deep Carbon Observatory
HHMI BIOACTIVE VIDEOS_CC: HHMI MAMMALS DAWN_Out_of_the_Ashes_HD_Creative Commons.mp4 
COMM EUROPE: biodiversity will now be protected from invasive alien species.mov 
dans dossier > 15 02 fev 21_WeirdestAnimals_pour BIODIVERSITE: blob fish heureux.webp (715×520)
tardigrade.png 
dans dossier > 29 01 21_ Pseudomonassyringae _pour BIODIVERSITE: Pseudomonas_syringae_culturesCultures of Pseudomonas syringae vanHall taken from bean halo blight colonies , The Deep Carbon Observatory_Creative Commons 
dans dossier > 16 02 fev 21_MicrobioteVentre & Instestins_pour BIODIVERSITEMICROBIOTE_file-20210125-19-snvfen

RESOURCES:
http://deepcarbon.net/
https://www.ipbes.net/
Baptiste Morizot, Manières d’être vivants, Actes Sud, 2020
http://www.hardydiagnostics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Ice-Forming-Bacteria.pdf
Peter Wohlleben, Das geheime Leben der Bäume, Ludwig, 2015 
Giulia Enders, Darm mit Charme: Alles über ein unterschätztes Organ, Ullstein, 2017 
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company

2. Species - Ecosystems

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NASA Public Domain
Wikimedia Creative Commons
WWF France TDR
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne

RESOURCES:
https://theconversation.com/how-many-species-on-earth-why-thats-a-simple-question-but-hard-to-answer-114909
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ejcOZDnyrk&ab_channel=It%27sOkayToBeSmart 
https://www.evogeneao.com/en/learn/tree-of-life
https://www.esf.edu/species/ 
https://www.livescience.com/54660-1-trillion-species-on-earth.html 
https://www.soils4teachers.org/biology-life-soil 
https://extension.oregonstate.edu/news/secret-life-soil 
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company

3. Foodchain

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NASA Public Domain
«Some Animals Are More Equal than Others: Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades by Dr Robert Paine» © HHMI – BioInteractive
WWF France -TDR
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Photo « Dr. Robert Paine _Washington State_ Studying his keystone species theory using starfish» © Credit Anne Paine
«Steve Palumbi & Megan Morikawa Study Coral Reef Damage in American Samoa » © HHMI – BioInteractive
Rolex Awards Associate Laureate- Emma Camp -Reef rescue with the toughest corals

RESOURCES:
https://www.biointeractive.org/classroom-resources/some-animals-are-more-equal-others-keystone-species-and-trophic-cascades 
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02882-0 
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/364/6436/173?rss=1 
https://berkeleysciencereview.com/article/trophic-thunder/ 
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-happens-when-predators-disappear-32079553/ 
https://coral.org/coral-reefs-101/coral-reef-ecology/coral-reef-biodiversity/ 
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/coral02_zooxanthellae.html 
https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/marine-life/coral-reef-ecosystems 
https://www.cirad.fr/en/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2020/response-danger-banana-fusarium-wilt 
www.underwater.earth 

4. Genetic diversity

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Tackling deforestation: Central Africa Forest Initiative ©  CAFI – One Planet Summit 2021
Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UNFCCC Adaptation Committee -UN Stories
NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency

RESOURCES:
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company
Baptiste Morizot, Manières d’être vivants, Actes Sud, 2020
https://coral.org/coral-reefs-101/coral-reef-ecology/coral-reef-biodiversity/ 
https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/coral02_zooxanthellae.html 
https://www.noaa.gov/education/resource-collections/marine-life/coral-reef-ecosystems 
https://www.cirad.fr/en/news/all-news-items/press-releases/2020/response-danger-banana-fusarium-wilt 
www.underwater.earth 
https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/PHYTO-04-15-0101-RVW 

5. Dynamics and evolution

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Gravures Mastodontes-MNHN -Muséum national d'histoire naturelle (Paris) - Direction des bibliothèques et de la documentation
«Georges Cuvier donnant son cours de paléontologie. Gravure (XIXe siècle) d'après un dessin d'Albert Chéreau» Photo Coll. Archives Larbor
«American mastodon (Mammut americanum). Mastodons diversified greatly during the Pliocene Epoch» Photo Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company
https://www.lernhelfer.de/schuelerlexikon/biologie/artikel/gleichgewicht-oekologisches
Christian Clot, Fabio Bono,  Darwin à bord du Beagle, Glenat, 2016 
https://www.lefigaro.fr/sciences/2008/03/05/01008-20080305ARTFIG00009-pourquoi-les-girafes-ont-elles-un-si-long-cou-.php 
Baptiste Morizot, Manières d’être vivants, Actes Sud, 2020 

6. Extinction

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ESA – European Space Agency
«Simulation de l'impact d’un astéroïde géant» © Denton Ebel - American Museum of Natural History
«Out of the Ashes: Dawn of the Age of Mammals» © HHMI - BioInteractive
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
https://www.notre-planete.info/environnement/biodiversite/extinctions_massives.php 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334428299_Operationalizing_Ecological_Resilience_Concepts_for_Managing_Species_and_Ecosystems_at_Risk 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNs9U4qVOII&feature=emb_logo 
https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/mass-extinctions/#mass-extinction
https://www.coralreefimagebank.org/before-after 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL7qJYKzcsk&ab_channel=CaliforniaAcademyofSciencesLiving Planet Report 2018 WWF
https://news.mit.edu/2014/ancient-whodunit-may-be-solved-microbes-did-it 
https://emmafcamp.com/ National History Museum Data PortalNational History Museum Data PortalIPBES Summary for policymakers : first global assessment 2019 www.underwater.earth 

7. The collapse of the coral reefs

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«Some Animals Are More Equal than Others: Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades by Dr Robert Paine» © HHMI – BioInteractive
«Steve Palumbi & Megan Morikawa Study Coral Reef Damage in American Samoa» © HHMI – BioInteractive
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Rolex Awards Associate Laureate-  Emma Camp -Reef rescue with the toughest corals

RESOURCES:
https://www.coralreefimagebank.org/before-after 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL7qJYKzcsk&ab_channel=CaliforniaAcademyofSciences
https://emmafcamp.com/ 
National History Museum Data PortalNational History Museum Data PortalIPBES
Summary for policymakers : first global assessment 2019 www.underwater.earth 

8. The 6th Extinction - land use & overexploitation

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«The 19th Century Salt-Cod Fisheries» © 2015 Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web
«Fishing boat, cod and halibut / W. B. Mille » Photo 1927 Librairy of Congress_Public Domain
«Bacalao Giraldo: la meilleure matière première» © bacalaogiraldo  2018
«Skrei - Le cabillaud norvégien par excellence » © Seafood From Norway  
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne

RESOURCES:
National History Museum Data PortalNational History Museum Data PortalI
PBES
Summary for policymakers : first global assessment 2019 
UN 2020 World Wildlife Crime Report
World Economic Forum Global Risk Report 2020 
http://www.pressesdesciencespo.fr/fr/book/?GCOI=27246100070300 
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company 
Aurélien Barrau, Le plus grand défi de l'histoire de l'humanité - Face à la catastrophe écologique et sociale, Michel Lafon, 2019
www.ibbes.net
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/australia-green-sea-turtles-turning-female-climate-change-raine-island-sex-temperature 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560231/ 
https://www.wwf.org.au/news/news/2019/revealed-plastic-ingestion-by-people-could-be-equating-to-a-credit-card-a-week 
https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution 

9. The 6th extinction climate pollution & invasive species

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NASA Public Domain
WWF France - TDR
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
ESA – European Space Agency
«Fighting for climate justice in the Marshall Islands» © Thomson Reuters Foundation 2020
«WHO: A community approach to dengue vector control in Uruguay» © World Health Organization
«LA TRINITE: SAUVER LES TORTUES » © ONU - UN Stories, Trinidad 2015

RESOURCES:
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company   
Baptiste Morizot, Manières d’être vivants, Actes Sud, 2020 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560231/ 
https://www.wwf.org.au/news/news/2019/revealed-plastic-ingestion-by-people-could-be-equating-to-a-credit-card-a-week 
https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution 

10. The tipping point

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NASA Public Domain
WWF France - TDR
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtu8MkufmVgxS8_Ocl7mMig
Médiathèque des Nations Unies – ONU
«Skrei - Le cabillaud norvégien par excellence » © Seafood From Norway  
Rolex Awards Associate Laureate- Emma Camp -Reef rescue with the toughest corals

RESOURCES:
https://www.pnas.org/content/117/24/13596 
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/01/science/mass-extinctions-are-accelerating-scientists-report.html 
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/5/e1400253 
Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, 2014, Henry Holt and Company  
Baptiste Morizot, Manières d’être vivants, Actes Sud, 2020 

The Impacts

1. The impacts on business

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Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UN Stories
Versowood  Finland
Metsä Group Finland
"Harvester of Tomorrow" World Premiere © Ponsse Inc 24th February 2021
Marshall Islands: A third of the nation has left for the US © PBS NewsHour CC

RESOURCES:
https://www.weforum.org/reports/new-nature-economy-report-ii-the-future-of-nature-and-business
http://wetlandswatch.org/ 
https://climate.copernicus.eu/harvester-seasons
https://climate.copernicus.eu/global-shipping-project
https://climate.copernicus.eu/offshore-wind-farm-operations-and-maintenance
https://climate.copernicus.eu/impact-climate-change-cotton-industry 
https://climate.copernicus.eu/soil-erosion 
https://agriculture.basf.com/global/en/business-areas/urban-and-rural-pest-control/use_areas/rural-pest-control.html
https://www.oneplanetsummit.fr/actualites-17/prochain-one-planet-summit-paris-le-11-janvier-2021-143

2. Focus on Norflox 4' Voix le femme

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Wetlandswatch.org
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RESOURCES:
https://riskfinder.climatecentral.org/place/norfolk.va.us?comparisonType=place&forecastType=NOAA2017_int_p50&level=6&unit=ft 
https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/ClimateWaterFS_NorfolkVA.pdf 
http://www.norfolkcoastaonb.org.uk/partnership/climate-change/1110 
https://www.washingtonpost.com/magazine/2020/04/13/after-decades-waterfront-living-climate-change-is-forcing-communities-plan-their-retreat-coasts/ 

3. The impact on humans - Part 1

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Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UN Stories
Fighting For Climate Justice In The Marshall Islands © ThomsonReuters Fondation_Trust-org
NASA Public Domain
The space climate observatory © One Planet Summit 2021
The Marshall Islands are drowning © DEMOCRATY NOW
Marshall Islands: A third of the nation has left for the US © PBS NewsHour CC

RESOURCES:
SOFIA report, FAO 2020
https://cdn.britannica.com/79/204679-050-56FF6905/Infographic-water-scarcity-causes-types-problem-solutions.jpg 
https://www.thenationshealth.org/content/48/8/E41.full
https://www.who.int/globalchange/global-campaign/cop21/en/ 
https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/uploads/9901f6614a2cac7b2b888f55b4dff9cc.pdf;
https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/EXTREME-HEAT-Final_508.pdf 
https://www.unisdr.org/files/1145_ewheatwave.en.pdf 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318173438_Global_risk_of_deadly_heat
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health 
https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/nov/19/sydney-smoke-city-covered-in-thick-haze-as-more-than-50-bushfires-burn-across-nsw 
Paul Epstein, ‘Climate Change and Human Health’ (2005) The New England Journal of Medicine 
https://www.who.int/fr/news/item/15-07-2019-world-hunger-is-still-not-going-down-after-three-years-and-obesity-is-still-growing-un-report
http://www.fao.org/3/ca1334en/CA1334EN.pdf 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzjVT07bcYA 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319999405_Impacts_of_Climate_Change_on_Mexican_Pacific_Fisheries  
Andreas Ebert, Jerry Hatfield, Danny Hunter, Shyam Yadav and Robert Redden, Food Security and Climate Change, John Wiley and Sons (2019)
 http://www.climate.gov.ki/effects/fresh-water-supply/ 
http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/pests/wrdgp/en/ 
Naomi Klein and Rebecca Stetoff : How to change everything, Simon&Schuster, 2021 

4. The impact on humans - Part 2

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Médiathèque des Nations Unies © ONU - UN Stories
Monster Boats – Kiribati © Greenpeace International

RESOURCES:
SOFIA report, FAO 2020
https://cdn.britannica.com/79/204679-050-56FF6905/Infographic-water-scarcity-causes-types-problem-solutions.jpg 
https://www.thenationshealth.org/content/48/8/E41.full
https://www.who.int/globalchange/global-campaign/cop21/en/ 
https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/uploads/9901f6614a2cac7b2b888f55b4dff9cc.pdf;
https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/EXTREME-HEAT-Final_508.pdf 
https://www.unisdr.org/files/1145_ewheatwave.en.pdf 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318173438_Global_risk_of_deadly_heat
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health 
https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/nov/19/sydney-smoke-city-covered-in-thick-haze-as-more-than-50-bushfires-burn-across-nsw 
Paul Epstein, ‘Climate Change and Human Health’ (2005) The New England Journal of Medicine 
https://www.who.int/fr/news/item/15-07-2019-world-hunger-is-still-not-going-down-after-three-years-and-obesity-is-still-growing-un-report
http://www.fao.org/3/ca1334en/CA1334EN.pdf 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzjVT07bcYA 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319999405_Impacts_of_Climate_Change_on_Mexican_Pacific_Fisheries  
Andreas Ebert, Jerry Hatfield, Danny Hunter, Shyam Yadav and Robert Redden, Food Security and Climate Change, John Wiley and Sons (2019)
 http://www.climate.gov.ki/effects/fresh-water-supply/ 
http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/pests/wrdgp/en/ 
Naomi Klein and Rebecca Stetoff : How to change everything, Simon&Schuster, 2021 

5. New viruses

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Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
Sanofi Pasteur
World Health Organization (WHO)

RESOURCES:
https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section10.html 
https://grist.org/climate-energy/was-there-a-link-between-climate-change-and-hurricane-katrina/ 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6632117/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600257/ 
https://ipbes.net/covid19stimulus 

6. Extinction

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The Marshall Islands are drowning © DEMOCRATY NOW
Fighting For Climate Justice In The Marshall Islands © ThomsonReuters Fondation_Trust-org
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
Esri Map : Heatwaves of deadly heat days © ESRI’s Applications Prototype Lab
« Syrie, témoins à charge » © La Jolie Prod

RESOURCES:
https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/06/heat-can-kill-and-were-turning-up-the-thermostat/
https://maps.esri.com/globalriskofdeadlyheat/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318173438_Global_risk_of_deadly_heat/link/59d34762a6fdcc181ad908dd/download  
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/climate-change-and-rising-food-prices-heightened-arab-spring/ 
https://www.unrefugees.org/news/the-war-in-syria-7-years-7-facts-countless-lives/ 
Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought External link, Colin P. Kelley et al, PNAS March 2, 2015. published ahead of print March 2, 2015.
https://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3241 
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421533112
Marwa Daoud, The Origins of the Syrian Conflict: Climate Change and Human Security, Cambridge University Press, 2020 
https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/03/19/climate-change-could-force-over-140-million-to-migrate-within-countries-by-2050-world-bank-report 
https://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/3235 

Roadmap to action

1. Adaptation

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Charlie Chaplin Movies’ Trailers © Archives. Org / Public Domain
Photo Buster Keaton in costume- 1939 © Library of Congress / Public Domain
Buster Keaton Movies’ Trailers © Archives. Org / Public Domain
Wikimedia Creative Commons

RESOURCES:
Christian Clot,  Explorer demain, comment être explorateur du xxie siècle. Robert Laffont (2019)
Christian Clot, Au cœur des extrêmes. Braver les quatre milieux les plus hostiles de la planète pour éprouver les capacités humaines d’adaptation, Robert Laffont (2018)
Moi, Christian Clot explorateur, Éditions Glénat, 20171
Christian Clot, Magellan, jusqu'au bout du monde, bande dessinée (avec T. Verguet (dessin) et B. Orenge (dessin), Éditions Glénat, 2012
Christian Clot, Covid et après? Michel Laffon, 2020

2. Exploration - A key to adapt

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« Human Population Through Time » © American Museum of Natural History N.Y.
«The Biology of Skin Color » © HHMI - BioInteractive
NASA Public Domain
ESA – European Space Agency
Wikimedia Creative Commons
« What the Moon teaches us: Origin and evolution of life » © Andrew Chaikin Film - Nasa

RESOURCES:
Christian Clot,  Explorer demain, comment être explorateur du xxie siècle. Robert Laffont (2019)
Christian Clot, Au cœur des extrêmes. Braver les quatre milieux les plus hostiles de la planète pour éprouver les capacités humaines d’adaptation, Robert Laffont (2018)
Moi, Christian Clot explorateur, Éditions Glénat, 20171
Christian Clot, Magellan, jusqu'au bout du monde, bande dessinée (avec T. Verguet (dessin) et B. Orenge (dessin), Éditions Glénat, 2012
Christian Clot, Covid et après? Michel Laffon, 2020 
Jared Diamond: Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive, 2004, Penguin

3. Portrait of an explorer Christian Clot

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Adaptation, la mission solo de Christian Clot 4x30 jours en milieux extrêmes 2016-2017 © Darwin Productions
Institut de recherche sur l’Adaptation Humaine
https://adaptation-institute.com/Snow Storm
Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth 1842© Joseph Mallord William Turner – Tate Gallery UK

RESOURCES:
https://adaptation-institute.com/ 
Christian Clot,  Explorer demain, comment être explorateur du xxie siècle. Robert Laffont (2019)
Christian Clot, Au cœur des extrêmes. Braver les quatre milieux les plus hostiles de la planète pour éprouver les capacités humaines d’adaptation, Robert Laffont (2018)
Moi, Christian Clot explorateur, Éditions Glénat, 20171
Christian Clot, Magellan, jusqu'au bout du monde, bande dessinée (avec T. Verguet (dessin) et B. Orenge (dessin), Éditions Glénat, 2012
Christian Clot, Covid et après? Michel Laffon, 2020

4. Fear and Marvel

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Adaptation, la mission solo de Christian Clot 4x30 jours en milieux extrêmes 2016-2017 © Darwin Productions
Institut de recherche sur l’Adaptation Humaine
https://adaptation-institute.com/Dive into the Deep Dark Ocean in a High-Tech Submersible! © Greg FOOT
Volcano Chasing in Japan! | #GregVlog/AXA Research Files Fund © Greg FOOT

RESOURCES:
https://adaptation-institute.com/ 
Christian Clot,  Explorer demain, comment être explorateur du xxie siècle. Robert Laffont (2019)
Christian Clot, Au cœur des extrêmes. Braver les quatre milieux les plus hostiles de la planète pour éprouver les capacités humaines d’adaptation, Robert Laffont (2018)
Moi, Christian Clot explorateur, Éditions Glénat, 20171
Christian Clot, Magellan, jusqu'au bout du monde, bande dessinée (avec T. Verguet (dessin) et B. Orenge (dessin), Éditions Glénat, 2012
Christian Clot, Covid et après? Michel Laffon, 2020

5. New viruses

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Pixabay
Wikimedia Creative Commons
Médiathèque Commission Europe © Union Européenne
WWF France & International TDR
ESA – European Space Agency
Wetlandswatch.org

RESOURCES:
https://adaptation-institute.com/ 
Christian Clot,  Explorer demain, comment être explorateur du xxie siècle. Robert Laffont (2019)
Christian Clot, Au cœur des extrêmes. Braver les quatre milieux les plus hostiles de la planète pour éprouver les capacités humaines d’adaptation, Robert Laffont (2018)
Moi, Christian Clot explorateur, Éditions Glénat, 20171
Christian Clot, Magellan, jusqu'au bout du monde, bande dessinée (avec T. Verguet (dessin) et B. Orenge (dessin), Éditions Glénat, 2012
Christian Clot, Covid et après? Michel Laffon, 2020